Although welladapted to indiana climate and soils, grain sorghum is a minor crop in the state. A companion document to directive 9408 dir9408, assessment criteria for determining environmental safety of plant with novel traits. Sorghum crop and soil management yield and yield components fertilizer use of sorghum. Sweet sorghum grows well in arizona because it doesnt require excessive irrigation and can survive long, hot summers. Sorghum production introduction sorghum sorghum bicolour l. Within most developing countries, the sorghum crop rarely reaches the market. Paratillage was performed every third year after sorghum harvest when the soil profile was relatively dry. The global crop diversity trust the trust provided support towards this initiative and considers. Sorghum in crop rotations sorghum readily follows other crops in rotations, but crops following sorghum may have problems, especially if a winter grain is planted shortly after sorghum is harvested in the fall. In areas with uncertain and erratic rainfall sorghum is a preferred crop. Choose autocrop to trim all the white margins automatically. Sorghum biomass stalks and leaves serves as an important forage crop for livestock.
This document was written by alexis ferard, jeanlucverdier. Cropping system changes in the savanna zone of western africa % of cropland in the region on which the considered crop is grown. This document has been developed by the crop experts. The maize crop was harvested manually from the experimental plots and was sundried for one week followed by removal of. Sorghum is used for human nutrition all over the world 2, 6, 7, 10. The main importers of sorghum are japan, mexico, the former ussr cis and venezuela. Results of these national cultivar trials, carried out by the arcgci, are published by the institute in the interest of producers, advisory services and the breeding industry. Orghum grain sorghum is the third most important cereal crop grown in the united states and the fifth most important cereal crop grown in the world. Annual forages such as pearl millet, sorghum sudangrass hybrids, forage sorghums and grain. There are multiple cultivars of sorghum available for use as a cover crop including sorghumsudangrass hybrids sorghum bicolor. This crop can produce yields similar to silage corn, but the forage quality is generally lower. Cover crops, fertilizer nitrogen rates, and economic.
Strategy for the global ex situ conservation of sorghum. The edit pdf toolset is displayed in the secondary toolbar. Sweet sorghum currently, yuma county producers are currently seeking alternative cropping systems and sweet sorghum could be one potential crop on the horizon. National sweet sorghum producers and processors association. Sorghum handbook white sorghum, the new food grain developing markets, enabling trade, improving lives. These results may thus be freely used, as long as they are used in a scientifically correct manner, incorporating the whole spectrum of. Notillage management of wheat residues prior to planting sorghum resulted in nearly an inch more stored water in the soil profile, which. Grain sorghum performance trials in oklahoma oklahoma state. Mike phillips bermudagrass is the most important warmseason perennial grass in the south, but many other grasses play an important role in a complete forage system.
In this document, domesticated sorghum refers to s. Vanderlip sorghums importance as a feed grain has increased in the u. Sorghumsudangrass sorghum bicolor cornell university. Importance of sorghum in africa j r n taylor department of food science, university of pretoria, pretoria 0002, south africa, email. Information from the cgsrvp fields is used to improve and refine recommendations to meet the needs of arkansas grain sorghum farmers and identify areas which need additional research. Sorghum is used as a drought tolerant, summer annual rotational cover crop either alone or seeded in a warm season cover crop mixture. Due to abnormal conditions at traditional planting periods, the number of doublecrop sorghum acres began to rise. Sorghum handbook agricultural marketing resource center. Sorghum could contribute more to food supplies than at present, especially to those regions and peoples in greatest need. Sorghum is sensitive to aluminum toxicity and soils with acid saturation higher than 20% can pose a problem. Limited extension of maize and steady dominance of millet and sorghum. A more detailed explanation of sorghumplant growth may be found in how a sorghum plant develops, kstate research and extension publication s3. Sorghum is a critical food crop for millions of africans and asians.
Sorghum is the 5th most important grain crop after wheat, maize, rice and barley. Sweet sorghum currently, yuma county producers are currently seeking alternative crop ping systems and sweet sorghum could be one potential crop on the horizon. Since the sorghumsudangrass returns biomass to the soil, it is economical to use this fertilizer. The latter is especially true in the more drought prone areas of south africa where this hardy crop provides better household food security than maize. One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized in pasture. Favorable conditions later in the production season can result in the sorghum crop increasing lateseason tiller production. It is a major crop for many poor farmers, especially in africa, central america, and south asia. Sorghum is a resilient crop under highstress environments, ensuring productivity and access to food when other crops fail. Condition of 2014 kansas sorghum crop crop weather reports, kansas agricultural statistics service, topeka. It is grown for home consumption unless there is a bumper crop, or if cash is needed. The residues improve water infiltration, reduce surface evaporation and reduce both wind and water erosion.
The higher yielding the crop, the greater the amount of nutrient removed. With the increased susceptibility to sca of later planted doublecrop sorghum, many of those acres were lost in previous years. One species, sorghum bicolor, native to africa with many cultivated forms now, is an important crop worldwide, used for food as grain and in sorghum syrup or sorghum molasses, animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. A vigorous cover crop by vern grubinger vegetable and berry specialist university of vermont extension in the heat of summer, sorghumsudangrass grass really puts the pedal to the metal, growing very fast and producing as much biomass as any cover crop can in just a few months, at least in temperate regions. In addition, sorghum is being developed as a bioenergy crop for advanced or secondgeneration biofuels production. Because of the wide range of maturity present in the field when the primary stems are mature. Globally, over half of all sorghum is used for human consumption. Production levels in south africa the sorghum farming community in south africa can conveniently be di. Sorghum grains research and development corporation. Grain sorghum production handbook kansas state university agricultural experiment station and cooperative extension service manhattan, kansas.
Sorghum, like many grains, has a diversity of uses, including human consumption and animal feed. A yearly planning guide allows producers to visualize or document the steps they will consider when producing a crop in a particular field. However, some of the same principles for managing this technology will apply. Grain sorghum information purdue university agronomy extension. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to australia, with the range of some extending to africa, asia, mesoamerica, and certain islands in the indian and pacific oceans. University of missouri extension southeast missouri crop. Sorghum is a warmweather crop, which requires high temperatures for good germination and growth. Advantages of forage sorghum for silage in limited input systems mark a. Planning ahead and predicting when certain input decisions will be arising is one way to avoid split second decisions and possible profit reductions.
Sorghum sorghum bicolor is one of the most important traditional cereal crops of the hotter and drier regions of the tropics and subtropics rao et al. In africa sorghum is fermented to make beer, porridge, injera a kind of bread and other products, in a process that makes available the. Millet and sorghum jj maizemillet and sorghum i other association with maize jlz cotton other crops in % of land cropped per region figure 5. Other information sorghumsudangrass is often referred to generically as sudex, although that is dekalbs trademarked name. Sorghum is among the top five cereals and one of the key crops in global food security efforts. In tropical and subtropical conditions of india, sorghum is extensively grown in light textured red sandy. Scientists see the potential of sorghum as a main staple food in a future challenged by climate change.
The quality of the grain sorghum crop reflected the milder growing season, and the majority of the crop remained in fair to excellent condition throughout the season figure 2. The global crop diversity trust the trust provided support towards this initiative and considers this document as a critical. Dryland sorghum depletes soil moisture more than other crops. The latter is especially true in the more drought prone areas of south africa where. This calendar is designed as a guide or reminder for producers to check on equipment. Moench is a crop indigenous to africa, where it appears to have been domesticated in ethiopia about 5 000 years ago. Nutritional and rheological properties of sorghum article pdf available in international journal of food properties 121. However, seasonal conditions can sometimes stimulate the buildup of a large population of one. Since purdue has conducted relatively little agronomic research on this crop, links are provided to grain sorghum information from other states where the crop is grown more widely. Cropping does not reduce file size because information is merely hidden, not discarded. C687 grain sorghum production handbook ksre bookstore.
Inzen grain sorghum differs from many other herbicide tolerant crop traits because it is a not transgenic trait, and is thus not a genetically modified organism gmo. By the early 1900s, grain sorghum was recognized as a drought tolerant crop that would outperform corn in the arid regions of the southern great plains. Striga infected sorghum fieldsoils seriously infected with witch weed or striga must be avoided. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family poaceae. All pages in the processed documents will be cropped equally. Grain sorghum performance trials in oklahoma oklahoma.
Pdf nutritional and rheological properties of sorghum. Select the area you want to crop and choose crop to selection if you want to manually select the part of the document you want to crop. Condition of 2014 kansas sorghum crop cropweather reports, kansas agricultural statistics service, topeka. The objective of this document is to provide a framework for the efficient and effective ex situ conservation of the globally important collections of sorghum. Including sorghum in the crop rotation, in conjunction with improved residue management practices, is an effective method to control both wind and water erosion.
There are multiple cultivars of sorghum available for use as a cover crop including sorghum sudangrass hybrids sorghum bicolor. Doublecrop sorghum was a vital part of the states acres prior to the sugarcane aphid sca. Economic information is collected on each cgsrvp field to estimate crop expenditures and returns. Sorghum bicolor is a drought tolerant c4 grass used for the production of grain, forage, sugar, and lignocellulosic biomass and a genetic model for c4 grasses due to its relatively small genome approximately 800 mbp, diploid genetics, diverse germplasm, and colinearity with other c4 grass genomes. It is now widely cultivated in dry areas of africa, asia, the americas, europe and australia between latitudes of. The trade in sorghum is small compared with the major grains such as wheat, maize, barley and rice. The plants ability to produce the flag leaf sheath and is supported by the portion respectable yields under adverse growing conditions of the stalk called the peduncle. Sweet sorghum for biofuel in nebraska 7 siteyr in nebraska in 20072008 rainfed deep silt loam, loam, or silty clay loam soil previous crop. These varieties have been selected for a onetime harvest or a single cut for silage production. Globally, it produces approximately 70 million tons of grain from about 50 million ha o f land.
The continent produces about 20 million tonnes of sorghum per annum, about onethird of the world crop. The sorghum was harvested on july 27, 2015 and july 29, 2016 whereas maize was harvested on november 11, 2015 and november 15, 2016. Hybrid forage sorghum hybrid forage sorghums commonly referred to as forage sorghum grow 810 ft tall and have relatively large stem diameters. Using sorghum to suppress weeds in autumn planted maize. Grain sorghum information purdue university agronomy. Oklahoma cooperative extension service grain sorghum. Srp11 2014 kansas performance tests with grain sorghum hybrids. The department of agriculture research dar, myanmar, has enhanced its partnership with icrisat for close collaboration in agriculture research, with a focus on grain legumes and smart food consumer and industry approaches with millets, sorghum and legumes. Nov 21, 2017 sorghum bicolor is a drought tolerant c4 grass used for the production of grain, forage, sugar, and lignocellulosic biomass and a genetic model for c4 grasses due to its relatively small genome approximately 800 mbp, diploid genetics, diverse germplasm, and colinearity with other c4 grass genomes. Characterization of the sorghum cinnamoylcoa reductase ccr, a key enzyme in lignin synthesis.
Marsalis1 abstract water shortages are threatening the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in dry environments such as the southern high plains shp of the u. Selection of grain sorghum hybrids veteran sorghum producers remember going. Moench is an indigenous crop to africa, and though commercial needs and uses may change over time, sorghum will remain a basic staple food for many rural communities. Increasing fertiliser costs means growers are increasing pulses within their crop rotation and even the use of ley pastures to complement their fertiliser programs and possibly boost soil organic matter. Sweet harvest article, originally appeared in ethanol producer magazine july 2008 pdf pdf document, download acrobat reader other sweet sorghum resources.220 1415 1012 1466 1105 408 952 914 883 1401 640 843 1478 174 703 100 1180 1537 438 927 563 182 1141 1438 1289 1149 11 641 384 121 1263 1002 910